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Habitats (Terrestrial)

Woodland and Scrub

Method Reference
General

Rodwell JS (1991). British Plant Communities Volume 1. Woodlands and Scrub. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hall JE, Kirby KJ and Whitbread AM (2004). National Vegetation Classification field guide to woodland. JNCC, Peterborough.

Kirby KJ (1988). A woodland survey handbook. JNCC, Peterborough.

Peterken GF and Backmeroff C (1988).  Long-Term Monitoring in Unmanaged Woodland Nature Reserves. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.

Goldberg E (ed) (2003). National Vegetation Classification – Ten Years’ experience using the woodland section. JNCC Report 335. JNCC, Peterborough.

Rich T, Rebane M, Fasham M, McMeechan F and Dobson D (2005). Ground and shrub vegetation in: Hill D, Fasham M, Tucker P, Shewry M and Shaw P (eds) Handbook of Biodiversity Methods: Survey, Evaluation and Monitoring, 201-222. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Peterken G and Fasham M (2005). Trees and woodland stands in: Hill D, Fasham M, Tucker P, Shewry M and Shaw P (eds) Handbook of Biodiversity Methods: Survey, Evaluation and Monitoring, 222-236. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Woodland, Version February 2004. JNCC, Peterborough.

 

Woodland and Scrub – Veteran Trees

Method Reference
General

English Nature (1996). Guidelines for Identifying Ancient Woodlands. English Nature, Peterborough.

Read H (2000). Veteran Trees: A guide to good management. English Nature, Peterborough.

Fay N and De Berker N (1997). Veteran Trees Initiative: Specialist Survey Method. English Nature, Peterborough.

Fay N and de Berker N (1998). Veteran Trees: An Introduction to Surveying Ancient Trees. English Nature, Peterborough.

Fay N (2004). Survey Methods & Development of Innovative Arboricultural Techniques at Key UK Veteran Tree Sites.

Fay N (2007). Defining and Surveying Veteran and Ancient Trees.

Fay N and De Berker N (2003). Evaluation of the Specialist Survey Method for Veteran Tree Recording. English Nature Research Report No 529. English Nature.

Remote Sensing, multiscale landscape

Smith GM and Wyatt BK (2007). Multi-scale survey by sample-based field methods and remote sensing: A comparison of UK experience with European environmental assessments. Landscape and Urban Planning. 79: 170-176.

Bateman IJ, Brainard JS and Lovett AA (1995).  Modelling Woodland Recreation Demand Using Geographical Information Systems: A Benefit Transfer Study. Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment.

 

Hedgerow

Method Reference
General

Bickmore CJ (2007). Hedgerow Survey Handbook: A standard procedure for local surveys in the UK, 2nd  edition. Defra, London.

Rich TCG, Clements DK, Lewis J and Moore L (2000). Comparison of four methods used to survey hedgerows: The Cardiff Hedgerow Survey. Journal of Environmental Management, 60: 91-100.

Clements DK and Tofts RJ (1992). Hedgerow Evaluation and Grading Systems(HEGS): A Methodology for the Ecological Survey, Evaluation and Grading of Hedgerows. Countryside Planning and Management.

HullSKand Gibbs JN (1991). Ash Dieback: A Survey of Hedgerow Trees.

Murray A and Foulks N (2007). A Methodology for the recording of hedgerow extent, species composition, structure, and condition in Ireland.

 

Grassland

Method Reference
General

Rodwell JS (1992). British Plant Communities Volume 3. Grasslands and Montane Communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Critchley CNR (1997). Monitoring methods. Grassland Management in Environmentally Sensitive Areas. BGS Occasional Symposium No. 32.

Hodgson JG et al. (1994). A simple method for monitoring grassland vegetation. BGS Occasional Symposium No. 28.

Goldsmith B (ed) (1991). Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology. Chapman & Hall, London.

Cooper EA (1998). Summary descriptions of National Vegetation Classification grassland and montane communities. JNCC, Peterborough.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Lowland Grassland Habitats, Version February 2004. JNCC, Peterborough.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2009). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Upland Habitats, Version July 2009. JNCC, Peterborough.

Critchley CNR and Poulton SMC (1998). A method to optimize precision and scale in grassland monitoring. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9: 837-846.

Robertson HJ and Jefferson RG (2000). Monitoring the condition of lowland grassland SSSIs - I English Nature's rapid assessment method. English Nature research report No. 315.

Smith IR, Wells DA and Welsh P (1985). Botanical survey and monitoring methods for grasslands. Focus on Nature Conservation 10. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough.

Critchley CNR, Burke MJ, and Fowbert JA (1999). Sensitivity and calibration of Plant Community Variables for Grassland Monitoring in English ESAs.

ADAS (2001). Development of sward-based guidelines for grassland management in ESAs and Countryside Stewardship.

Burke MJW and Critchley CNR (1999). Improving the cost-effectiveness of the ADAS plot method for monitoring grassland. ADAS report to MAFF.

Critchley CNR and Poulton SMC (1998). A method to optimize precision and scale in grassland monitoring. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9: 837-846.

Sward height and structure

Frame J (1993). Herbage mass Sward measurement handbook, 2nd Edition. British Grassland Society, Reading.

Stewart KEJ, Bourn NAD and Thomas JA (2001). An evaluation of three quick methods commonly used to assess sward height in ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38: 1148-1154.

Meyer M (1980). Monitoring and mapping natural area grassland vegetation with small format aerial photography. IAFHE RSL research report.

Hooper AJ (1992). Measurement and perception of change: Field monitoring of environmental change in the Environmentally Sensitive Areas. 27th Institute of Terrestrial Ecology Symposium.

ADAS (1996). Assessing vegetation characteristics of enclosed grassland using satellite imagery.

Remote Sensing

Mino N, Saito G and Ogawa S (1998). Satellite monitoring of changes in improved grassland management. International Journal of Remote Sensing19: 439-452.

Inoue Y, Morinag S and Tomita A (2000). A blimp based remote sensing system for low-altitude monitoring of plant variables: a preliminary experiment for agricultural and ecological applications. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21: 379-385.

 

Montane

Method Reference
General

English Nature (2007). The upland management handbook. Information note 1- assessing vegetation condition in the English uplands.

Cooper EA (1998). Summary descriptions of National Vegetation Classification grassland and montane communities. JNCC, Peterborough.

MacDonald A, Stevens P, Armstrong H, Immirzi P and Reynolds P (1998). A Guide to Upland Habitats, Surveying Land Management Impacts. Scottish Natural Heritage.

Rodwell JS (1992). British Plant Communities - Volume 3. Grasslands and Montane Communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

Mires and Heathlands

Method Reference
General

Alonso I (2001). Common standards for monitoring lowland heathland. English Nature.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2009). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Lowland Heathland, Version February 2009. JNCC, Peterborough.

Rodwell JS (1991). British Plant Communities - Volume 2. Mires and Heaths. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

MacDonald A and Armstrong H (1989). Methods for monitoring heather cover. Research and Survey in Nature Conservation Series, No. 27. JNCC, Peterborough.

MacDonald A (1993). Heather Damage: A Guide to Types of Damage and their Causes. Research and Survey in Nature Conservation Series, No. 28. JNCC, Peterborough.

Alonso I, Sherry J, Turner A, Farrell L, Corbett P and Strachan I (2003). Lowland Heathland SSSIs, Guidance on conservation objectives setting and condition monitoring. English Nature, Peterborough.

Mitchley J, Burch J and Lawson C (1998). Habitat restoration project: development of monitoring guidelines. English Nature Research Reports, No. 284.

Robertson HJ and Jefferson RG (2000). Monitoring the condition of lowland grasslands SSSIs. I. English Nature’s rapid assessment method. English Nature Research Reports, No. 315.

English Nature (2003). The Scrub Management Handbook, Guidance on the Management of Scrub on Nature Conservation Sites.

 

Bogs

Method Reference
Remote Sensing

Milton EJ et al. (2005). Remote Sensing of Bog Surfaces. JNCC, Peterborough.

Reid E (1997). Information and Advisory Note Number 67: Characterisation of blanket bogs using satellite imagery. Scottish Natural Heritage, Edinburgh.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Lowland Wetlands Habitats, Version August 2004. JNCC, Peterborough.

 

Ditches

Method Reference
General

Alcock AR and Palmer MA (1985). A Standard method for the survey of ditch vegetation. NCC, Peterborough.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2005). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Ditches, Version March 2005. JNCC, Peterborough.

Biggs J (2008). A standard Water Framework Directive compliant method for surveying macroinvertebrate assemblages in ditches. Pond Conservation.

Palmer M, Drake M and Stewart N (2010). A manual for the survey and evaluation of the aquatic plant and invertebrate assemblages of grazing marsh ditch systems, Version 4. Buglife, Peterborough.

 

Shingle

Method Reference
General

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Vegetated Coastal Shingle Habitats, Version August 2004. JNCC, Peterborough.

Ferry B, Lodge B and Waters S (1990). Dungeness: A vegetation survey of a shingle beach. Research & Survey in Nature Conservation, No. 26. Nature Conservancy Council.

Morris RKA and Parsons MS (1992).  A Survey of Invertebrate Communities on the Shingle of Dungeness, Rye Harbour and Orford Ness. JNCC, Peterborough.

Sneddon P and Randall R.E (1993). Coastal Vegetated Shingle Structures. JNCC, Peterborough.

Sneddon P and Randall RE (1989).  Vegetated Shingle Structures Survey of Great Britain: Bibliography. JNCC, Peterborough.

 

Salt Marshes

Method Reference
General

Burd F (1989). The Salt Marsh Survey of Great Britain. An Inventory of British Salt Marshes. Research and Survey in Nature Conservation No. 17. Nature Conservancy Council.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Saltmarsh Habitats, Version August 2004. JNCC, Peterborough.

Adnitt C, Brew D, Cottle R, Hardwick M, John S, Leggett D, McNulty S, Meakins N and Staniland R (2007). Saltmarsh Management Manual. Environment Agency, Bristol.

Stark H, Hemphill P and Whittle A (2002). NVC Survey of saltmarsh and other habitats in the North Norfolk Coast Marine site. Volume 1. Posford Haskoning.

Hemphill P and Whittle A (2002). NVC Survey of saltmarsh and other habitats in the Wash European Marine Site. Volume 2. Posford Haskoning.

 

Sand Dunes

Method Reference
General

Radley GP (1994). Sand Dune Vegetation Survey of Great Britain, Part 1: England. JNCC, Peterborough.

Dargie TCD (1993). Sand Dune Vegetation Survey of Great Britain, Part 2: Scotland. JNCC, Peterborough.

Dargie TCD (1995). Sand Dune Vegetation Survey of Great Britain, Part 3: Wales. JNCC, Peterborough.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Sand Dune Habitats, Version August 2004. JNCC, Peterborough.

Dargie T (2002). Sand dune vegetation survey of Scotland: National report. Survey and Monitoring Report series. Scottish Natural Heritage.

Rodwell JS (2000). British Plant Communities. Volume 5 - Maritime Communities and vegetation of open habitats. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.