Skip Content

Invertebrates (Terrestrial)


Method Reference

Wheater CP and Cook PA (2003). Studying Invertebrates. Richmond Publishing.

Hill D, Fasham M. Tucker P, Shewry M and Shaw P (eds) (2005).  Handbook of Biodiversity Methods: Survey, Evaluation and Monitoring. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2008). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Invertebrates, Version March 2008. JNCC, Peterborough.

Ausden M and Drake M (2006) Invertebrates in: Sutherland WJ (ed) Ecological census techniques, 2nd Edition, 214-249. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Drake CM, Lott DA, Alexander KNA and Webb J (2007). Surveying terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates for conservation evaluation. Natural England Research Report NERR005. Natural England, Peterborough.

Harding PT (ed) (1994). Invertebrates in the Landscape: Invertebrate Recording in Site Evaluation and Countryside Monitoring - Supplement 1. Proceedings of the National Federation for Biological Recording Annual Conference held at the University of Sussex, 5 July 1991. British Entomological and Natural History Society.

Gullan PJ and Cranston PS (2010) The Insects: An Outline of Entomology. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.

Eyre MD (ed) (1996). Environmental Monitoring, Surveillance and Conservation Using Invertebrates. EMS Publications.

Brooks SJ (1993). Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Invertebrates: Guidelines for invertebrate site surveys. British Wildlife, 4(5): 283-286.

Leather S (2005). Insect Sampling in Forest Ecosystems: Methods in Ecology. Imperial College, London.

Capture Release

McWilliam SJ (2000). Invertebrate Capture Techniques: Invertebrates Capture Methods and Techniques.

Invertebrate Link (JCCBI) (2002). A Code of Conduct for Collecting Insects and Other Invertebrates. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 15(1): 1-6.

Colin Plant Associates. Criteria Used to Define Significance of Invertebrate Habitat.

Site Quality

Pollard E, Moss D and Yates TJ (1995). Population trends of common British butterflies at monitored sites. Journal of Applied Ecology, 32: 9-16.


Sutherland WJ (ed) (2006). Ecological census techniques, 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

UKMBS. G1: Monitoring Butterfly Numbers By The Transect Method Summary Information For Recorders.

UKMBS. G2: Field Guidance Notes for Butterfly Transects.

Birkinshaw N and Thomas CD (1999). Torch-light Transect Surveys for Moths. Journal of Insect Conservation, 3: 15-24.

Light Traps

Fry R and Waring P (2001). A Guide to Moth Traps and Their Use. Amateur Entomologists' Society.

Spalding A and Parsons M (2004). Light trap transects – a field method for ascertaining the habitat preferences of night-flying Lepidoptera, using Mythimna turca (Linnaeus 1761) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as an example. Journal of Insect Conservation, 8: 185-190.

Anglian Lepidopterist Supplies (2004). Beginners Guide to Moth Trapping, 2nd Edition.


Specialist Groups

Group Reference

McGavin GC (1997). Expedition Field Techniques: Insects. Expedition Advisory Centre, Royal Geographical Society, London.

Pollard E (1977). A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. Biological Conservation, 12: 115-134.

Pollard E and Yates T (1994). Monitoring Butterflies for Ecology and Conservation. Chapman & Hall, London.

UKBMS. Methods for recording butterfly transects.

Sheppard DA and Eyre MD (1983). Guidelines for county insect survey. Recording News Hancock Museum, 2: 14-17.

English Nature (2005). Organising Surveys to Determine Site Quality for Invertebrates. A framework guide for Ecologists.

Muirhead-Thomson RC (1991). Trap Responses of Flying Insects: The Influence of Trap Design on Capture Efficiency. Academic Press, London.

UK Ladybird Survey. Techniques for monitoring ladybirds.

Speight MCD and Castella E (2001). An approach to interpretation of lists of insects using digitised biological information about the species. Journal of Insect Conservation, 5: 131–39.

Feest A, van Swaay C, Aldred TD and Jedamzik K (2011). The biodiversity quality of butterfly sites: A metadata assessment. Ecological Indicators, 11: 669-675.


Russel-Smith A (ed) (2008). British Arachnological Society Members' Handbook.