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Method Reference

Barnett A and Dutton J (1995). Expedition Field Techniques: Small Mammals, 2nd Edition. Expedition Advisory Centre, Royal Geographical Society, London.

Bennett A, Ratcliffe P, Jones E, Mansfield H and Sands R (2005). Other mammals in: Hill D, Fasham M, Tucker P, Shewry M and Shaw P (eds) Handbook of Biodiversity Methods: Survey, Evaluation and Monitoring, 450-471. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cresswell WJ, Birks J, Dean M, Pacheco M, Trewhella WJ, Wells D and Wray S (2012). UKBAP Mammals: Interim Guidelines for Survey Methodologies, Impact Assessment and Mitigation. The Mammal Society, Southampton.

Flowerdew JR, Shore RF, Poulton SMC and Sparks TH (2004). Live trapping to monitor small mammals in Britain. Mammal Review. 34: 1-167.

Gurnell J and Flowerdew J (2006). Live trapping Small Mammals: A Practical Guide. Mammal Society booklet.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Terrestrial Mammals, Version August 2004. JNCC, Peterborough.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2005). Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Marine Mammals. JNCC, Peterborough.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Tracking Mammals Partnership Guidelines on Best Practice in Surveillance and Monitoring.

Krebs C (2006) Mammals in: Sutherland WJ (ed) Ecological census techniques, 2nd Edition, 351-369. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Macdonald DW, Mace G and Rushton S (1998). Proposals for future monitoring of British mammals. DETR, London.

Tabor R (2001). Practical fieldwork with small mammals. Live trapping. British Naturalists’ Association guide.


Specialist Species and Groups

Species/ Group Reference Licence Required

Harris S, Cresswell P and Jefferies D (1989). Surveying Badgers. Mammal Society.

Scottish Natural Heritage (2003). Best Practice Guidance - Badger Surveys. Inverness Badger Survey 2003. Commissioned Report No. 096.

Delahay RJ, Brown JA, Mallinson PJ, Spyvee PD, Handoll D, Rogers LM and Cheeseman C L (2000). The use of marked bait in studies of the territorial organisation of the European badger (Meles meles). Mammal Review 30: 73-87.

Badger survey licence not required but licence for disturbance is. Site specific interference licence may also be required.

Bat Conservation Trust (2016). Bat Surveys for Professional Ecologists: Good Practice Guidelines, 3rd Edition. Bat Conservation Trust, London.

Mitchell-Jones AJ and McLeish AP (2004). The Bat Workers’ Manual, 3rd Edition. JNCC, Peterborough.

Mitchell-Jones AJ (2004). Bat Mitigation Guidelines. English Nature.

Stebbings R, Mansfield H and Fasham M (2005). Bats in: Hill D, Fasham M, Tucker P, Shewry M and Shaw P (eds) Handbook of Biodiversity Methods: Survey, Evaluation and Monitoring, 433-449. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Schofield H (2008). The Lesser Horseshoe Bat: Conservation Handbook. The Vincent Wildlife Trust, Ledbury, UK.

Agate J. Bat Conservation Trust NBMP Online Field Survey Tutorial.

Briggs B and King D (1998). The Bat Detective: A Field Guide to Bat Detection. Audio CD.

Cowan A (2003). Trees and Bats: Guidance Note 1. Arboricultural Association.

Kelleher C and Wilson J (2008).  The Bats of Ireland: How to Survey, Study and Identify Them. Bat Conservation Ireland, DVD.

Kunz TH and Parsons S (2009). Ecological and Behavioral Methods for the Study of Bats, 2nd Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, USA.

Licence required for most surveys.

Rabies vaccination required for all who handle bats.

Licence required for works which may disturb bats or destroy roosts.


Chapman JA and Flux JEC (eds) (1990). Rabbits, Hares and Pikas: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Switzerland.

Reid N, Dingerkus K, Tosh T, Paxton CGM, Marques TA, Borchers DL, Montgomery WI, Marnell F, Jeffrey R, Lynn D, Kingston N and McDonald RA (2007). Status of Hares in Ireland: Hare Survey of Ireland 2006/07. Irish Wildlife Manuals No. 30. Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Ireland.

Hall-Aspland S, Sweeney O, Tosh D, Preston J, Montgomery I and McDonald R (2006). Northern Ireland Irish hare survey 2006.

Reid N, Harrison AT, Robb GN (2009). Northern Ireland Irish hare survey 2009. Northern Ireland Environment Agency Research and Development Series No. 09/04.


Mayle BA, Peace AJ and Gill RMA (1999). How Many Deer? A Field Guide to Estimating Deer Population. Forestry Commission Field Book 18.

Wemmer C (ed) (1998). Deer Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Switzerland.


Bright PW and Morris PA (1989). A practical guide to dormouse conservation. The Mammal Society.

Bright PW, Morris PA and Mitchell-Jones A (2006). Dormouse Conservation Handbook, 2nd Edition. English Nature, Peterborough.

Bright PW, Mitchell P and Morris P A (1994). Dormouse distribution: survey techniques, insular ecology and selection of sites for conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 31: 329-339.

Bright P and Morris P (2005). The Dormouse. The Mammal Society.

Bright P, Morris P and Mitchell-Jones A (1996). Surveying Dormice using nest tubes. English Nature Report 524.

Chanin P and Woods M (2003). Surveying dormice using nest tubes: Results and experiences from the South West Dormouse Project. English Nature Research Report No. 524.

Not required until first dormouse is found, then disturbance licence is required.

National Rivers Authority (1993). Otters and River Habitat Management. Conservation Technical Handbook Number 3.

Ward D, Holmes N and José P (1994). The New Rivers and Wildlife Handbook. RSPB, Bedfordshire.

Macdonald DW, Mace G and Rushton S (1998). Proposals for future monitoring of British mammals. DETR, London.

Licence only required for more invasive surveys.
Red Squirrels

Gurnell J, Lurz P and Pepper H (2009). Practical Techniques for Surveying and Monitoring Squirrels. Forestry Commission, Surrey.

Gurnell J, Lurz PWW, Shirley MDF, Magris L and Steele J (2004). A critical look at methods for monitoring red and grey squirrels. Mammal Review. 34: 51-74.

Gurnell J and Pepper H (1994). Red squirrel conservation field study methods. Forestry Commission Research Information Note 255. Forestry Commission.

Finnegan L, Hamilton G, Perol J and Rochford J (2007). The use of hair tubes as an indirect method for monitoring red and grey squirrel populations. Biology and the Environment. 107B: 55-60.

Survey licence may be required if disturbance is likely.

Thompson PM and Harwood J (1990). Methods for Estimating the Population Size of Common Seals, Phoca vitulina. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27: 924-938.

Sea Mammal Research Unit (2002). Surveys of harbour (common) seals in Shetland and Orkney, August 2001. Scottish Natural Heritage, Edinburgh.

Shrews, Voles and Mice

Anthony NM, Ribic CA, Bautz R and Garland T (2005). Comparative effectiveness of Longworth and Sherman live traps. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 33: 1018-1025.

Licence required for shrew trapping.
Water Shrews

Carter P and Churchfield S (2006). The Water Shrew Handbook.The Mammal Society.

Churchfield S, Barber J and Quinn C (2000). A new survey method for Water Shrews (Neomys fodiens) using baited tubes: Mammal Review. 30: 249-254.

Licence required for trapping.
Water Voles

Strachan R and Moorhouse T (2006). Water Vole Conservation Handbook, 2nd Edition. Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU), Oxford University.

Licence required when disturbance cannot be avoided.